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AASRP Research Summary

Comparing the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles, copper sulfate and levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats.

Date/Time: 9/14/2018    16:15
Author: Beth C Johnson
Clinic: Kentucky Department of Agriculture/Office of State Veterinarian
City, State, ZIP: Frankfort, KY  40601

Comparing the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles, copper sulfate and levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats.

Dr. Beth Johnson, DVM, MS, BS 1 ; James Mackey, Undergraduate Honor Program 2 ; Dr. William DeWees, DVM 2 ; Barbie Papajeski , MS, LVT, RLATG, VTS 2 ;
1Kentucky Department of Agriculture/Office of the State Veterinarian, Frankfort, KY
2Murray State University, Murray, KY
3Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office, Frankfort, KY

Introduction:

Haemonchus contortus is a primary concern for goat producers. An infestation of H. contortus, known as haemonchosis, can cause poor development, poor performance, and death.  Due to the development of anthelmintic resistance, alternative ways to monitor and control haemonchus have been researched.   Alternatives treatments to chemical anthelmintics are copper oxide wire particles (COWP) and copper sulfate (CuSO4). These have been found to be effective at controlling H. contortus populations in goats with a lessened resistance development, and are beginning to be used alongside chemical anthelmintics to combat resistance development in H. contortus. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of COWP vs.CuSO4 vs. Levamisole.  

Materials and Methods:

 A group of 60 mature does were randomly separated into three groups of 20.

A DrenchRite® test was performed on the collective fecal samples from each of the three groups. The H. contortus present in each of the three groups showed resistance to Benzimidazole, Levamisole, Moxidectin, and Ivermectin.  Based on the results of the DrenchRite® tests, Levamisole was chosen as the anthelmintic for group III.
 
Group I: Copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWP): The does each received a 4g bolus of COWP.

Group II: Copper Sulfate (CuSO4): The CuSO4 was prepared by dissolving 2oz of CuSO4 into 3 quarts of warm water. Does weighing between 61-80lbs received 50mL of the CuSO4 drench, and does weighing over 80lbs received 60mL of the CuSO4 drench. The CuSO4 drench was re-dosed 6 weeks after the initial dosing due to high mean FEC and FAMACHA scores and low mean PCVs of the does in group II.

Group III: Levamisole:  A 52g package of Prohibit (Levamisole) was dissolved into one quart of water, yielding a 49.6mg/mL solution. The levamisole was then dosed at 12mg/kg of body weight as a single oral drench. The levamisole was re-dosed 4 weeks after the initial dosing.

Fecal Egg Counts: Fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on every goat at the initial dosing and at weeks 2,4,6,8,10,12, and 14. FECs were performed utilizing 2.00 grams of feces with 28mLs of a sucrose solution.  The mixture was strained and refrigerated overnight. The following morning the mixture was then resuspended and place on McMaster slides to be read by three different individuals and an average was taken.

PCV: Packed cell volumes (PCV) were performed on every goat at the initial dosing and at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 14.

FAMACHA: FAMACHA scores were obtained at the initial dosing and at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14. This score was used as a subjective measure of anemia. A FAMACHA score card was used to determine the FAMACHA score at each collection.
The data collected on the FEC, FAMACHA, and PCV was analyzed using SAS. 

Results:

There was no significant variance in treatments between breeds.
There was a statistically significant difference between treatments on FEC: p<0.0001
There was a statistically significant difference between treatments on FAMACHA:  p<0.0001
There was a statistically significant difference between treatments on PCV:  p<0.0001
The CuSO4 group had larger standard deviations overall than both the COWP and levamisole groups, meaning that the treatment was less consistent. Both the COWP and levamisole groups had higher mean PCV, lower mean FEC and lower mean FAMACHA scores than the CuSO¬4 group, despite redosing the CuSO4 6 weeks into the study.

Significance:

COWP are an effective way of controlling H. contortus in goats as it produced similar results to the Levamisole control group. CuSO4 was not a reliable way of controlling H. contortus populations. The CuSO4 group had a much larger standard deviation than the COWP and levamisole groups and was less effective at treating the H. contortus infestations. While COWP and CuSO4 have been found to be effective when used in combination with chemical anthelmintics, COWP should be selected over CuSO4 for the reasons stated in this trial.


Comments/Suggestions/Problems should be directed to Steve Johnson

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